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  1. #1
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    Profiling bullies for active treatment

    Bullies and their victims are diverse populations, and there are no simple templates for identification, intervention or treatment. Bullying is a complex social phenomenon which takes many different forms and serves many different functions. Bullying may be physical, emotional or psychological and maybe perpetrated by one or more individuals. Bullying may be accomplished by acts of commission (e.g., physical aggression) or omission (e.g., social isolation), and may be a more or less direct or indirect (e.g., face-to-face versus Facebook), more or less overt or covert, more or less public or private, more or less calculated and systematic or spontaneous and incidental, more or less obvious as to motive (e.g., types of victims, sadistic, displaced aggression, monetary exploitation, “fame terrorist”), and more or less damaging and traumatic to victims.

    All humans seek power and control, pleasure and comfort, and safety and security, doing so more or less adaptively (i.e., exercising their rights and meeting corresponding responsibilities); however, without adaptive learning environments and related protective and supportive structure, humans are inclined to seek power and control, pleasure and comfort, and safety and security maladaptively (i.e., by violating the rights of others or not meeting related responsibilities). Bullying is so common because the use of force and violence and/or deception and manipulation to control and motivate others are natural human tendencies. Put a group of children in a room full of toys without adult supervision and the more socially sophisticated and physically dominant children will soon have the toys they want.

    Under ideal conditions, loving parents who know the difference between adaptive discipline and maladaptive permissiveness will teach their children adaptive social skills throughout their developmental years, establishing a good foundation before their children are school-age. However, conditions are never ideal and many children develop in a maladaptive learning environment which teaches them self-serving anti-social skills. In addition to maladaptive interpersonal behaviors, these "socially challenged" individuals act-out consistent with their learned anger, desires, and fears. Each social environment (e.g., home, schools, classrooms, neighborhoods, prisons, churches, group homes, internet forums) has its own level of tolerance and response to bullies and victims. Additionally, entire social environments can be maladaptive and encourage or glorify different types of bullying (e.g., gangs, institutional abuse by proxy). In fact, bullies in one social environment may become victims in another, consistent with the "laws of the jungle."

    Both individuals and social environments must be actively managed in order to be adaptive. That is, natural tendencies consistent with bullying must NOT be entertained or reinforced, and bullying must be met with sure, swift, and relevant consequences. Without active management to the contrary, both individuals and social environments tend to become less adaptive (i.e., more self-serving and exploitive). That's one reason that laws, law enforcement, courts, and prisons are necessary.

    In spite of the fact that bullies are a diverse population, they can still be profiled and divided into functional subcategories. One method for doing so is using the BRACE Work Adjustment Profile, which is a simple yet sophisticated assessment device designed for ongoing active treatment in developmental, mental health, educational, and correctional programs (e.g., therapeutic horticulture, any type of vocational or activity program, even a classroom). It also profiles maladaptive behavior for functional analysis and behavior problem solving. The BRACE Work Adjustment Profile has been successfully implemented in the public and private sectors, in both for profit and not-for-profit programs, and across the full range of special populations (e.g., developmental disability, criminal justice, vocational, mental health, severely medically restricted). It can be used by an individual service provider or parent, or it can be used by an interdisciplinary team.

    The following two links are to free downloads of the BRACE Work Adjustment Profile manual, which is a PDF file, and a related Microsoft Excel program for generating reports and graphics (baseline, progress reports, entry-exit comparisons). Note that the program can be implemented without using the Excel report generating program. Also note that the sample profile and analysis presented in the manual is of a Mr. Y., who is a bully.

    Manual

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/downloads/WAP_MANUAL.pdf

    Reports Program

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/downloa...P_Template.xlt

    All my personal opinions,
    Russell
    Even chaos is well patterned.

  2. #2
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    Just a clarification ... The example used in the above manual is of a bully, but the profiling technique applies to anyone, victims as well as bullies.

    Russell
    Even chaos is well patterned.

  3. #3
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    STOP Bullying NOW link ...

    http://www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/adults/default.aspx

    Russell
    Even chaos is well patterned.

  4. #4
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    Profiling bullies and their victims

    There have been a number of recent changes to my website, so I am reposting the links to the BRACE Work Adjustment Manual (PDF file) and the Microsoft Excel template used to generate charts and graphics for entry-exit evaluations, progress notes, baselines, etc. Three case studies (PDF files) have been added. Also added are two form files, which are the BRACE Work Adjustment Profile assessment form in PDF and Word for Windows formats. Note that the bottom part of the assessment form can be modified for local use. These are all free downloads.

    The BRACE Work Adjustment Profile manual:

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...e%20MANUAL.pdf

    The Excel program for generating charts and graphics for evaluations and reports:

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...%20REPORTS.XLT

    Case study Mr. X:

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...AP%20CaseX.pdf

    Case study Mr. Y (this is the example used in the manual):

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...AP%20CaseY.pdf

    Case study Mr. Z (at risk for being exploited, being a victim):

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...AP%20CaseZ.pdf

    BRACE Work Adjustment Profile assessment form (PDF):

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...WAP%20Form.pdf

    BRACE Work Adjustment Profile assessment form (Word for Windows):

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...20Form.dot.doc

    Russell
    Even chaos is well patterned.

  5. #5
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    The above listed downloads related to the BRACE Work Adjustment Profile have been downloaded scores of times, some from Websleuths members, many apparently related to public and private school systems or other active treatment programs. If any program director or service provider has any questions related to particular applications or implementation, please feel free to post here or email me.

    Russell
    Even chaos is well patterned.

  6. #6
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    Quote Originally Posted by Knot4u2no View Post
    There have been a number of recent changes to my website, so I am reposting the links to the BRACE Work Adjustment Manual (PDF file) and the Microsoft Excel template used to generate charts and graphics for entry-exit evaluations, progress notes, baselines, etc. Three case studies (PDF files) have been added. Also added are two form files, which are the BRACE Work Adjustment Profile assessment form in PDF and Word for Windows formats. Note that the bottom part of the assessment form can be modified for local use. These are all free downloads.

    The BRACE Work Adjustment Profile manual:

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...e%20MANUAL.pdf

    The Excel program for generating charts and graphics for evaluations and reports:

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...%20REPORTS.XLT

    Case study Mr. X:

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...AP%20CaseX.pdf

    Case study Mr. Y (this is the example used in the manual):

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...AP%20CaseY.pdf

    Case study Mr. Z (at risk for being exploited, being a victim):

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...AP%20CaseZ.pdf

    BRACE Work Adjustment Profile assessment form (PDF):

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...WAP%20Form.pdf

    BRACE Work Adjustment Profile assessment form (Word for Windows):

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...20Form.dot.doc

    Russell
    Bump

    Profiling (i.e., accurately assessing) maladaptive patterns of thought, behavior, and motivation for any type of behavior problem, including bullies and their victims, is the first step in establishing individualized intervention strategies and behavior change plans for all involved. The links in this thread provide free access to a manual, forms and procedures for active treatment, a program for generating baseline assessments, monthly reports, entry-exit evaluations, and three sample case studies. This program has been successfully implemented in the community and in institutional settings for various special populations. The program also provides the foundation for training all service providers and guardians in adaptive interpersonal interaction - i.e., how to stop reinforcing maladaptive patterns of behavior and start reinforcing relatively adaptive patterns.

    Russell
    Even chaos is well patterned.

  7. #7
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    Quote Originally Posted by Knot4u2no View Post
    There have been a number of recent changes to my website, so I am reposting the links to the BRACE Work Adjustment Manual (PDF file) and the Microsoft Excel template used to generate charts and graphics for entry-exit evaluations, progress notes, baselines, etc. Three case studies (PDF files) have been added. Also added are two form files, which are the BRACE Work Adjustment Profile assessment form in PDF and Word for Windows formats. Note that the bottom part of the assessment form can be modified for local use. These are all free downloads.

    The BRACE Work Adjustment Profile manual:

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...e%20MANUAL.pdf

    The Excel program for generating charts and graphics for evaluations and reports:

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...%20REPORTS.XLT

    Case study Mr. X:

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...AP%20CaseX.pdf

    Case study Mr. Y (this is the example used in the manual):

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...AP%20CaseY.pdf

    Case study Mr. Z (at risk for being exploited, being a victim):

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...AP%20CaseZ.pdf

    BRACE Work Adjustment Profile assessment form (PDF):

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...WAP%20Form.pdf

    BRACE Work Adjustment Profile assessment form (Word for Windows):

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/free_do...20Form.dot.doc

    Russell
    Note: The Pender Day Training Program has significantly changed since 2003. I personally have had no involvement with it since 2005. However, I think this overview of the program as it was contains some useful information about active treatment of a “special population” in a prison context. Keep in mind that all of these inmates were scheduled to return to the community.

    Pender Day Training Program
    ACA National Exemplary Offender Program Award 2003

    In 1993 the North Carolina Department of Correction established a statewide program for adult male felons assessed as Mildly Mentally Retarded (DSM-IV 317) or Borderline Intellectual Functioning (DSM-IV V62.89). The program, known as the Pender Day Training Program (DTP), is located within Pender Correctional Institution, a medium custody prison located in Burgaw, North Carolina.

    Offender Population Served: Over 95% are repeat offenders, over 85% have a history of alcohol or other substance abuse, and many are otherwise dually diagnosed. 25% have some type of medical limitation. Most were “kicked out” of school due to conduct or dropped out due to lack of interest, and most have histories of juvenile crime. Based on 120 inmates admitted to the Day Training Program from January 1999 to June 1999, the age ranged from 22 to 72, with an average age 42.31 years. Sentences ranged from four to 240 months, average length 38.4 months. Average of 13.85 arrests, 9 felony convictions, and 5.25 incarcerations in jail or state prison, and 50% had a history of some type of sexual crime. Average academic grade levels: 1.97 reading; 1.71 spelling; 2.66 math. 57% had a diagnosis of Mild Mental Retardation; 43% Borderline Intellectual Functioning. WAIS-R average IQ 67.24 (71 inmates); WAIS-III average IQ 61.86 (43 inmates).

    Mission of the Day Training Program: The mission of the North Carolina Department of Correction is to promote public safety by the administration of a fair and humane system which provides reasonable opportunities for adjudicated offenders to develop progressively responsible behavior. The primary mission of the Pender Correctional Institution Day Training Program is “to teach (systematically create opportunities to learn) progressively more responsible behavior, which is defined as the development of the specific academic, vocational and interpersonal skills and self management skills necessary to understand and independently exercise rights and meet corresponding responsibilities without violating the rights of others. The Day Training Program creates opportunities to learn but each individual has primary responsibility for his own values, emotions and behavior as well as his own rehabilitation and habilitation.”

    Input Items on the ACA Exemplary Offender Program Eligibility Screening Sheet
    Part A
    ITEM 1. Yes, but recidivism rate has not been formally documented.
    ITEM 2. Yes, the offender’s educational level is routinely documented through PRE-POST standardized educational assessments and daily ratings of motivation and effort to learn and complete educational tasks. In addition to Compensatory Education classes, educational activities are proactively integrated into all vocational activities (e.g., carpentry, therapeutic horticulture, commercial sewing).
    ITEM 3. Yes, the offender’s improved marketability for employment is formally documented using the BRACE Work Adjustment Profile and is supported by formal research. *
    ITEM 4. Yes, cognitive and life skills are formally assessed using the BRACE Work Adjustment Profile and there is extensive documentation and research supporting significant gains.
    ITEM 5. Yes, the family is integrated into the treatment process throughout the work day through Therapeutic Interaction by staff --- i.e., systematically taking advantage of naturally occurring opportunities during work activities to focus the conversation on domestic violence, parenting skills, personal responsibility, gender discrimination, the effects of alcohol and other drugs on the family, personal boundaries, etc. Additionally, many Community Work Projects provide an ideal context for focusing on the family, such as making blankets for children in crisis and domestic violence shelters, providing flowers to accompany Meals-On-Wheels, or making cabinets for the Mathew 25 House, which provides free housing for inmate visitors. Additionally, offenders are encouraged to write letters and each offender receives a photograph to send home highlighting them and a completed work project.

    Part B
    ITEM 1. Yes. The Pender Day Training Program has a clear and specific purpose that is stated in a formal mission statement. (see above).
    ITEM 2. Yes. The Pender Day Training Program has specific and measurable goals and objectives. Within 30 days of admission to the Day Training Program, each inmate has a Treatment Team meeting to establish a formal individualized Treatment Plan which documents the treatment process, the schedule of treatment activities, the baseline performance appraisal, the individual Treatment Objectives for each treatment activity with target dates for completion, and the responsible staff.
    ITEM 3. Yes. The Pender Day Training Program was established in 1993 and has always met its stated objectives, most recently achieving 100% compliance (no deficiencies) with all quality assurance standards in a formal audit by the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services on September 19, 2002.
    ITEM 4. Yes. The Pender Day Training Program outcome measures consistently reflect well over 90% successful participation and significant gains in vocational, educational, and interpersonal skills. The BRACE Work Adjustment Profile provides an objective profile of each participant’s job performance, patterns of adaptive and maladaptive behavior, and related cognitive, behavioral, and motivational characteristics. When baseline measures are compared to exit evaluations, there are consistently significant gains in personal responsibility, vocational skills, and interpersonal skills.
    ITEM 5. Yes. The Pender Day Training Program effectively addresses the specific offender problems and needs identified under Part A. The DTP is a program of active treatment designed to address both current and future adjustment needs: current adjustment within prison and future adjustment in the community. Vocational and educational activities are provided for six hours a day within the framework of a state-of-the-art cognitive-behavioral model known as “Behavioral Relativity and Cognitive Economics.” Each inmate has individualized assessments, baseline performance profiles, a Treatment Plan, daily ratings of motivation and effort, monthly progress notes, and a comprehensive participation summary and aftercare plan.
    ITEM 6. Yes. The Pender Day Training Program can be replicated in other jurisdictions. In particular, the Community Work Projects, systematic Therapeutic Interaction during vocational activities, Therapeutic Horticulture, and the use of the BRACE Work Adjustment profile.
    Overview of Treatment Philosophy and Treatment Activities:
    Criminal conduct and related values and beliefs are learned and subject to the basic principles of learning and change. The “behavior therapy” aspect of our service delivery is based on a cognitive-behavioral model of human behavior called “Behavioral Relativity and Cognitive Economics” (BRACE). The staff receive ongoing training in how to identify and respond to both maladaptive and adaptive patterns of behavior, using interpersonal guidelines we call “Therapeutic Interaction”. Further cohesion is provided by the use of the BRACE Work Adjustment Profile, which establishes a baseline profile for vocational and cognitive-behavioral functioning, establishes a range of treatment objectives, and is an effective tool for staff training, profiling general adjustment, interdisciplinary behavior problem solving and prevention, and program evaluation.

    Therapeutic Interaction is provided by “Instructors” (Rehabilitation Therapist IIs) during the course of routine “supervisor-employee” interactions in a work context (Therapeutic Horticulture, Commercial Sewing, Landscape Construction Design). We also have a Compensatory Education class provided by Cape Fear Community College with two Instructors. Although the primary goal of our vocational activities is to replace patterns of criminal conduct and thought with adaptive patterns, the inmates do gain specific job skills and they do produce valued products and services. Placement in the Day Training Program is not voluntary, it is a job assignment. We operate under the same general rules as the road squad. In addition to being a gain time III job, inmates do earn a small incentive based on their motivation and effort to learn and perform their assigned duties, which is assessed daily on a five point scale. The six Instructors and two Developmental Disability case managers complete monthly progress notes.

    Rather than being a narrowly-focused, production-oriented prison work program, the Pender Day Training Program is a flexible and dynamic active treatment and training program, able to quickly and efficiently shift focus and activities according to current resources, the skills and interests of employees, and the individual needs of participants. It is highly responsive to current resources and needs.

    The rationale and purpose for the “work” is important for both motivation and personal development. That is, the type of work matters. The Day Training Program inmates, Teacher Aides, and instructors are involved in meaningful work activities, and they gain a real sense of personal accomplishment by making a positive contribution to others. Helping others is a source of true self-esteem, which must be earned. Inmates who work on “Community Work Projects” (the work is performed in prison for nonprofit groups or community government agencies) gain self-respect and establish critically important emotional and cognitive ties with the community. Such work projects are a positive step toward becoming a productive member of the community, giving the inmate a vested interest in the community to which he will be returning. Community Work Projects are very cost-effective --- the receiving nonprofit group or government agency provides the materials and the Day Training Program provides the work.

    The Pender Day Training Program thrives on its own standards of excellence.

    Russell
    Even chaos is well patterned.

  8. #8
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    And what would you say to those who claim profiling should be illegal?

  9. #9
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    Quote Originally Posted by TrackerSam View Post
    And what would you say to those who claim profiling should be illegal?
    I would say they do not understand the nature of profiling and refer them to The BRACE Character Profile™ for Investigators: How to Warm Up Cold Cases, which was originally published in the New Criminologist Journal, March 20, 2006, Original Issue: Volume 6, 2005.

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/downloa...estigators.pdf

    Although the article in the link discusses the BRACE Character Profile, the profiling rationale also applies to the BRACE Work Adjustment profile, which is simply a profiling/assessment tool for functional analysis and ongoing evaluation. There is nothing illegal about objective profiling and analysis. Every behavior-problem-solving solution starts with accurately defining the problem.

    Just my opinions,
    Russell
    Even chaos is well patterned.

  10. #10
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    The links in the prior posts still work

    My website has been completely redesigned and updated. I just checked to make sure all of the links in the prior posts in this thread still work- they do.

    Russell
    Even chaos is well patterned.


  11. #11
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    Quote Originally Posted by TrackerSam View Post
    And what would you say to those who claim profiling should be illegal?
    Profiling IS bullying.

    Basically what the OP is proposing is systematically getting them before they get you (just in case). And the ones taken out who never were going to be bullies in the first place (but just fell foul of the "profile") - acceptable losses.

    In essence, institutionalized bullying (on the basis that bullying by the authorities is ok).

  12. #12
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    bourne is offline "The truth shall set you free." ~JUSTICE FOR REBECCA ZAHAU
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    Quote Originally Posted by Knot4u2no View Post
    I would say they do not understand the nature of profiling and refer them to The BRACE Character Profile™ for Investigators: How to Warm Up Cold Cases, which was originally published in the New Criminologist Journal, March 20, 2006, Original Issue: Volume 6, 2005.

    http://www.braceanalysis.com/downloa...estigators.pdf

    Although the article in the link discusses the BRACE Character Profile, the profiling rationale also applies to the BRACE Work Adjustment profile, which is simply a profiling/assessment tool for functional analysis and ongoing evaluation. There is nothing illegal about objective profiling and analysis. Every behavior-problem-solving solution starts with accurately defining the problem.

    Just my opinions,
    Russell
    I agree. Nothing wrong with profiling *behaviors* of individuals. It's profiling people based solely on physical appearances (race, color of skin, body size, etc.) and then discriminating against them that is wrong.

  13. #13
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    Incorrect. Profiling people on the basis of behaviour/environment, and then assuming that they will commit serious crimes is wrong as well.

    Does the OP condone profiling poor people and "correcting" them as potential criminals? What about homosexuals? Do they need to be "fixed" too? Because that is essentially what he is doing. You become a criminal when you commit a crime, not because you come from a disadvantaged background. Likewise you become a bully when you bully, not because you come from a dysfunctional family or engage in behaviours/activities others don't approve of.

  14. #14
    bourne's Avatar
    bourne is offline "The truth shall set you free." ~JUSTICE FOR REBECCA ZAHAU
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    Quote Originally Posted by Tugela View Post
    Incorrect. Profiling people on the basis of behaviour/environment, and then assuming that they will commit serious crimes is wrong as well.

    Does the OP condone profiling poor people and "correcting" them as potential criminals? What about homosexuals? Do they need to be "fixed" too? Because that is essentially what he is doing. You become a criminal when you commit a crime, not because you come from a disadvantaged background. Likewise you become a bully when you bully, not because you come from a dysfunctional family or engage in behaviours/activities others don't approve of.
    No, the protocol given by OP does not profile people on the basis of *environment*, only behavior. And no one is assuming that they *will* commit crimes. What the protocol calls for is profiling behaviors that have been linked to crimes. Nothing wrong with *preventative* measures. That is what DOCTORS do too. They diagnose you according to your *symptoms* and give you a treatment plan to either cure or help you manage or prevent your health problems.

    Nobody is calling anyone who fits a profile a "criminal". You're putting that negative label into the equation yourself.

    Perhaps you're misunderstanding what it means to profile *behaviors*.

    Here's an example. You see a toddler climbing out an open window on the 5th floor. Do you do something to STOP him? Or do you sit still and wait for him to fall? If you choose the former, you have behaviorally profiled the toddler and you prevented a horrible accident from occurring.

    I'm not aware that *being poor* or *being a homosexual* are *behaviors*??? A person's wealth is a socioeconomic status, NOT a behavior. And being a homosexual is a trait, NOT a behavior.

    A behavior is defined as an *action*, which means a person is physically performing an action. *Being* something is an inertial, nonmoving state, NOT an action. So being poor or homosexual, or for that matter, being rich or heterosexual are NOT actions. Nobody is profiling a state of being. The protocol calls for profiling behaviors.



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