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  1. #16
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    Usually see drawn out abrasions in dragging - these look like something hitting him before death. Left heel - tearing of skin vs. cutting abraided skin - abrasions. before death - bleeding.

    Some sort of movement or force blunt force

    Left foot - area by the heel (ankle) contusion or bruise - skin is intact - abrasion is where skin is torn.

    Looks like a postmortem change not ante-mortem.

    If individual is dead - not going to move around to cause this.

    Exhibits #192 - 199

    photos of victims injuries of back part of body and head
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  2. #17
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    #192 - #199

    Grouping of injuries - happened about same time and all oriented same direction. . . . diagonal extending from R shoulder to back.

    There are a pair of wounds going the other direction. Could be consistent with individual having his back to attacker- yes

    9 injuries clustered together - upper part is post mortem skin slippage

    9 stab wounds- deeper than longer- all about 1" deep - going into back parts or ribs and spine - none of them entered chest cavity but w/decomp can't rule that out. They appear to all have been stopped by bones. depends on force of assailant and weapon used how deep and the thickness of his bone also plays a role. they didn't go thru the bone

    Buttock area - a little red - lividity - found in a semi-seated position - blood settled to that area.

    Gasses forming in the body expelling from decomp - liquid or fluid come out with the gas.

    #194 - Look @ right foot. Bruises or blood or discolor? Discolor and mummification.

    Left foot and knee area - on the other side - dried parchment like appearance see after death. Left contusion on the ankle area and abbrasion on achilles tendon.

    #192 - grouping wounds - head and neck

    #195 - shaved some the hair from he head - deep incised wounds very deep go into back of skull - some force applied to these wounds - but if you have a very sharp blade it cuts but it goes to the bone that takes much more force. 2" in both wounds

    His hair is very short, it is not long or bushy so it didn't cushion

    The edges of one portion of the incised wounds - caused divit in teh skull - bone was chipped away

    #199 - the tip of an implement - tp of a knife - bone has been chipped away.

    #195 - divit one @ extreme left end of the wound @ the bottom

    #198 cansee it there too.

    #196 - focus on area down here to the bottom - also to the front of the head on #197 the 2 injuries - towards the front of the head forehead near hairline - you can see his eyebrow in the bottom of the picture. These wounds are all pre-death - all have bleeding associated with it.

    #200 and #201 - R side of TA' neck behind the ear . . .

    all of these injuries looked @ so far - taken together all the wounds could have been fatal over time.

    #200 - stab wound back part of skull behind ear - down intoskull boney area - into the strap muscle 1 1/4"

    #202 = back opposite side left side neck another stab wound.
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  3. #18
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    #202 stab wound to back side neck penetrates into muscle - 1"
    #203 - #206

    the largest wound of the neck across the throat

    Are you able to tell if wound started on right or left side? not able to say

    #203 - side view of neck wound - better pic to show how deep it goes. passes thru the airway (windpipe cut through) - individual loses ability to scream cuz it is below the voice box. He was alive @ this time. . . . blood comes out . . . right side

    #204 - right side jugular vein and corrted artery were cut - 3 or 4 inches. It doesn't penerate the spinal cord bone - stops @ the bone

    #205 - frontal view of same wound - -scalloped - irregularity - dried after death. If you inspect the wound it is a clean cut.

    Hesitation marks? Very unusual for people to cut their own throat - shallow cuts then deep cuts - we don't see any shallow hesiation cuts

    tryng to look @ what wound looked like.

    I can't say whether it started on right or left

    The chest wound wasn't immediately fatal - how about this one?

    He has 2 major vessles in his throat - lose blood very quickly and then lose conscious and then die. He could get up and walk a couple of feet - lose conscious and then collapse and then die. Within a few seconds he would collapse - die within a couple minutes.
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  4. #19
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    gunshot wound to TA's R forehead

    #207 - #210 admitted

    (It appears TA's sisters have left thefront row)

    Gunshot entrance wound - passes thru the skull thru the face and terminates in left cheek. (Jodi looked up and covered her mouth and looked down). Indeterminate range of fire - no stippling

    #208 - same injury w/ruler next to it.

    #209 - left cheek - incision made to get the bullet. It must have struck the brain . . . brain is decomposed and falls apart very quickl y after death. I have to conclude brain was perferated. He would be rapidly incompacitated.

    That is bullet - exhibit #244
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  5. #20
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    Mechanism of death - how did he die? Primarily blood loss. AFter you lose blood, lose ability to provide oxygen to brain and heart - dizzy, loss concsiousness then death.

    3 specific injury could have led to death. . . stab wound to chest - slit of throat and shot to the head rapidly fatal.

    projectile going thru front of brain - lose consciousness and then go down

    Slashing of the throat - it is most severe injury - most bleedng from jugular

    Most fatal - chest? middle - significant injury it would cause death without med attn but not loss conscious immediate

    One to neck and head - cause loss conscious immediate

    One tothe chest would not.

    Defensive wounds to hands - occurred before fatal injury to head or throat.

    TA attempted to grab the knife.

    Sequencing of events . . . one to head an slit of throat -

    Throat and head wound TA couldn't have purposeful movement - he would have been unconscious

    first wound would have been one to chest

    First would have

    Stab could have occurred then the

    Throat and head he will not attempt to defend himself after those. Can't say if head injury if he was alive . The neck he was alive - lots of blood. Chest wound he was alive

    Wound going thru the head - no hemmorage thru brain or wound tract thru brain . . . may have been an indication person was already dead.

    Afternoon recess - 10 min after 3 return.
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  6. #21
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    Cross Exam of ME by Defense Atty

    Trajectory of bullet - coming in from right hand side heading left - it may have been deflected by the bone - cheek may not have been trajectory originally

    Scalp wounds do bleed. Head wound just above the forehead in a living person would bleed alot. If the wound happened at the time TA was living - we would have seen a lot of blood. Depending on when he was cut and how much blood loss from other wounds.

    In abstract sense without all of the blood loss -

    Had TA been alive would there been blood in his mouth? Not in the oral cavity lodged in the cheekbone connected by the sinus.

    Not knowing the distance from the muzzle of the gun to TA - stippling or soot deposits on the skin.

    Stippling on the end of the gun on person shot will be burned by dust coming out of the gun. Up to a yard away a few feet away - depending on the gun. Must get the gun and test fire it. burn marks? abrasions - there may be burns but it is gun poweder imbedded into skin. Water from shower could wash out some of the powder but it wouldn't was out burn marks. I didn't see any stippling on his skin. Can't determine a range. I don't think it is contact wound as those usually leave star shaped tear, I don't see soot, stippling or star shaped wound. It could mean some object between the face and gun ie: object or towel between. Likely not up against the face when fired

    Upper back - cluster of 9 stab wounds on upper back - grouping in between his shoulders -they are shallow wounds.

    #193 in evidence - picture of wounds grouping on back shoulders - center group - three toward right shoulder. Group in center are actually straight on - appear to be . . . equal amt of tissue on the side. the directionality the way they are oriented - the wound is not vertical but diagnal. In terms of trajectory look like center of back - more straight on from back to front.

    Group on the right look like they are coming from right to left and into the back trajectory. (a little bit) from his right shoulder heading toward his middle. Wounds are shallow. Less force applied? Depends on force applied - thse were on bone - didn't break into bone in the spine.

    Wound penetrates into and perforates the vena cava was much deeper - yes. and it went thru cartlidge - more force than just going thru soft tissue or fat. No chipping of the bone on the back stab wounds.

    (Jodi still using the same pristine kleenex)

    Reaching over the back would have less force than someone standing behind? generally agree with that. Wound to vena cava - basically lower right chest. That one would eventually be fatal without med attention - due to blood loss. Able to tell trajectory? yes pretty much straight into chest cavity from right side of chest . . . isn't it upper? if it is itis very slight because of where the heart is.

    Doesn't it have an undetermined lower edge so it will be slightly upper . . . not undetermined but undermined. . . . decomposed person characteristics are not exact.

    It does have a slightly upper trend . . .can happen if person is slightly taller than victim? in a general way that is true.
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  7. #22
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    Vena cava is essentially straight in with a slightly upper trajectory.

    DA asks to approach ME. . . . haven't seen this photo prior to today? Can you see his head, shoulder and what appears to be an arm , and could be a foot? could be.

    Assume that pic is of Mr. Alexander = #162 admitted and published.
    ars to be a head - arm, shouder - foot in thedistant part (off to the right) person lying down - if this is tile - that would be him laying on his back. Blood on his right shoulder. Arm looks like it is flexed up. Head is also up? I don't know what this blue object is in the foreground? Does this appear to be a foot and pantleg? could be . . . shoulder is off the ground? I think so. Once the wound to the neck - having his head up would be impossible? He would have afew seconds - it is not beyond realm of reality. Picking up head or moving arm is quite possible. Wouldn't you expect to see more blood? That looks like a lot of blood - can't see what is below him don't know how much blood is here - from this picture. Blood on right shoulder, large area of blood and appears t obe dripping. Gunshot wound was to his right side.
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  8. #23
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    Gunshot wound -track of the bullet from fontal bump to facial skeleton of the left maxilary bone of the left cheek. Did autopsy in June 12 2008, found therewas no gross evidence of significant intercranial hemmorage. bleeding thru the brain. The brain is really non-existent - it has become liquid -it is very dfficult to examine. Didn't you take slices? yes - it is softened but not liquified - it is still there but the state it was in. Autolized brain - liquified brain tissue. Multiple serial sections - as best as I can - running a knife thru the brain toinspect it. Does not reveal presence of grossly apparent trauma - nothing is clearly defined - no metal fragments, no foreign bodies.

    People w/injuries to their brains they are not incapcitated - having something going thru brain - it had to have passed thru the brain. skull is perforated where the brain is it had to have passed thru brain. passed thru right frontal lobe - it had to pass thru the brain a hole into the skull and exit from skull cavity intothe face. There is no way it could have avoided the brain. You are sure of that? YEs!

    The person with an arrow thru the brain coming into the ER - heard those stories - those are different - not with projectiles - with an arrow it is much lower velocity and doesn't cause as much damage as a bullet. Icoudn't document the damage because of the decomposition.
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  9. #24
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    Findings for Det. Flores - speak to him ever again after the autopsy? I don't recall. No memory after June 12 talking to him. I have no idea if I did. he is listed on my report as being there. You know because it was documented in your report.

    Information about gunshot wound . . . any info Det Flores had would have come on June 12 if you don't remember talking to him again? objection - speculation X3 sustained X3

    provided Det. Flores w/report from ME's office via mail to PD.

    Told Det Flores first wound was shot w/head? I don't remember ever saying that - it is not consistent with autopsy.

    Knew this cuz gunshot wound would not have completely incapacitated someone - don't recall telling Det. Flores that. Not immediately fatal . . . I think it would be incacitating - it did pass thru his brain.

    I don't recall having a conversation w/Det at all about this case.
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  10. #25
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    doesn't make sense that the gunshot wound came first. . . don't remember having conversation with Det. Flores = did you never speak to him? it was 10 years ago - it was in 2008 - 4 1/2 years ago -

    I don't remember

    I don't rember if I talked to him or not again after the autopsy.

    DA asks for a minute.

    TA's sisters back in front row - (they might have been there before and camera didn't show them)

    REmember giving your opinion to Det. Flores - cut to throat was last wound? I he testified in another court that information? NO - so he is wrong? Objection - sustained

    You have no memory discussing scene photos w/Det Flores? NO - I do not have any recollection of that - I have been answering this question

    Re-direct . . .
    do you remember having an interview w/this person wearing glasses and talk to them about the sequencing the injuries Did you stop interview and say No I don't want to talk to them about sequencing. I felt gunshot wound would have been last but would have come after injuries to the hands.

    Who was in the room with you - forensic, students, photographers - by report they are in an observation room. Det is not in same room - observation bay separated by glass. If they want to talk to you - how do they provide this advice? They don't usually - they have a hand set they can pick up and talkto me and I would go t the window and talk to them. I would not say which is first right away - I would want pathology, histology, minimum of one month and up to 4 months. I conducted autopsy 6/12 report dated 7/15 - 8 pg report.

    Sequence of events not written in report - it is not practice to write sequence in report - it would be speculative . . . after having all info then make determination
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  11. #26
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    Do you know if right arm or left arm is doing? no . . . . holding up the right arm? don't know what the left arm is doing. . . top of the head @ top upper right middle. . . . blood coming from the neck area - associate that blood with cut to the throat. Chest area - head and arm in that postiion = injury to neck area is where blood is coming from.

    wounds to the back quesetions -
    May or may not be your area - mens arms are generally longer than womens - upper chest bigger than a womans - injuries to the back - you were asked is it possible someone to come around from the front and stabbed the victim in the back .. . hunched over someone came up from behind - could be consistent - it slightly upward ... there is no impediment - it could be from the front or back.

    Consistent with someone sitting down and someone stading - yes

    issue of gunshot wound - frontal lobe it went thru it . . . human body - shock to entire brain - not like an arrow or nail - shock to the brain - incapacitated. gunshot went above the mouth - bleeding out the mouth is entirely possible - ended up in left cheek.

    Distance of gunshot wound is indeterminate - no stippling. How far away or how close? I am not ballistic expert - miniimum distance of a couple of feet at least. Hemmorage associated with it? in scalp and cheek but not in the skull itself. less blood other injuries proceeded that and less blood out of the body or possible person was dead @ the time.

    Det Flores @ the autopsy - no MD after his name. No idea where he gained his knowledge - ME autopsy, schooling, education and experience .

    No juror questions. - STate may call next witness -

    Can we approach bench - you may
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  12. #27
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    Witness Northcutt sworn in . .. Elizabeth Northcutt - Forensic firearms examiner

    she does distance determinations too!

    employed in firearms for 8 years.

    Cartridge case - container holds powder, primer, and a bullet. if bullet is fired then it is a fired cartridge case. bullet is extracted and ejected in semi-automatic. It extracts and injects - hits firing pin pressure pushes bullet on its way toward a target and ejects fired cartridge case.

    A revolver you must manually remove the fired cartridge case . . . . youwould have to open up the revolver and remove the casing - a semi-automatic ejects one automatically and that is usually when you find one at a crime scene.

    She has examined the casing . . . she observed headstamp WIN25 Auto - manufactured or branded by winchester. Auto means name of cartridge - designed to be fired in an auto loading pistol. part of the caliber - 25 auto is designed to be fired in auto loading pistol. just the name of it caliber designation - not that it means it can only be fired in an automatic firearm.

    She entered this into database - for high confidence candidates any "hits" - got nothing back.

    Exhibit #244 - bullet from ME - she puts on gloves - look @ picture exhibit #210 - appears to be the bullet. . . . do you need to open to make sure so leave no room for doubt. (she opens)

    yes it is the one in the photograph.

    Caliber of the bullet - examined basic physical characteristics measured it and weight - it is consistent w/25 auto bullet. How much does 25 caliber bullt weigh? typically 50 grains - this weighed 44.8 - bullets frequently lose weight when fired - that is not a big discrepency. Rifling impressions on the bullet - made by rifling inside the firearm the entire barrel of the gun. This had 6 right rifling - grooves in the barrel -lands and grooves - it is a fired 25 caliber bullet. Casing - it appears to be . . . go ahead and look at markings on it.
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  13. #28
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    this casing can match several different types of guns . . . sometimes casings can be kicked around and not left where ejected.

    Prosecuter - is it a Magical casing? Object - sustained.

    blood on the ground 0 exhibt #114 reddish brown substance there - casing is there #1 -top of casing have any blood on it? no! objectcion - overrulled - approach!
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  14. #29
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    See top of casing - any reddish substance on top of it? Reddish substance under it ? yes . . . no juror questions. . . .

    Evening recess

    10:30 am start tomorrow
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  15. #30
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    Court made mention - Dr. Horn not be released from his subpoena as Defense may seek to recall him.

    Counsel if you want a witness released - you must let me know @ end of testimony _ I will assume they will be recalled unless you say so.
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