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  1. #16
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    http://www.arthritis.org/conditions-...-center/women/

    The term "arthritis" encompasses more than 100 diseases and conditions that affect joints, the surrounding tissues and other connective tissues. Arthritis can cause mild to severe pain in the joints, as well as joint tenderness and swelling. More than 50 million Americans have some type of arthritis or related condition.

    The various forms of arthritis and related conditions can affect anyone, no matter what your race, gender or age. However, it is especially important for women to be educated about these diseases since they affect women at a much higher rate than men. Sixty percent of all people who have arthritis are female, and several of the more common forms are more prevalent in women.

    Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative joint disease or OA, is the most common form of arthritis. Of the nearly 27 million Americans who have osteoarthritis approximately 16 million are women. Women usually develop OA after age 40. It causes damage to cartilage and bones, causing joint pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of function.

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) usually strikes women between the ages of 25 to 50, but can occur in children. RA is a systemic disease that can affect the entire body. An abnormality in the body's immune system causes it to work improperly, leading to inflammation in the lining of the joints and other internal organs. Chronic inflammation can lead to deterioration, pain and limited movement. Approximately 1.5 million American adults have RA, with women outnumbering men 2.5-to-1. Learn more about RA. Learn about how to live with RA from the editors of Arthritis Today.

    Lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus) is an inflammatory disease that may affect the joints, skin, kidneys and other parts of the body. Almost 240,000 Americans -- 90 percent of whom are women -- have this arthritis-related condition. It usually affects women of childbearing age and is more common among African American women than Caucasian women. Some studies indicate that it may also be more common among Asian and Latino populations.

  2. #17
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    http://foil.ucsc.edu/WhatWeDo.htm

    Age: In adults, the most accurate indicators of age-at-death are the pubic symphysis of the pubic bone, the auricular surface of the ilium, and the sternal end of the fourth rib. . In addition, the general condition of the skeleton, such as presence of arthritis, lipping of the vertebral bodies or osteoporosis can be used for general age estimates. In young adults and teenagers, the pattern of epiphyseal fusion of the skeleton and eruption of the teeth are used to estimate age. In the fetus, infants and children, dental development, epiphyseal fusion, ossification patterns and length of the long bones are used to determine age.



    Stature: Stature in adults is estimated by measuring long bone length and extrapolating the measurements to estimate living height. Fragmentary bones may also be used to approximate living stature. In teenagers and children (who are not fully grown) stature estimates are not accurate. Stature estimates are sex and population specific. Estimates are given as an interval.



    Ancestry: Ancestry is difficult to access from skeletal remains. There are no “pure” races and bureaucratic assessments of ancestry or cultural identification may not reflect biology. Characteristics of the teeth, facial skeleton, cranium, and femur are most useful for determination of ancestry. Measurements of adult skeletons can also be used to estimate ancestry.

  3. #18
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  4. #19
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    Tooth wear models and calculation for age

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1....tb00041.x/pdf

    attrition (i.e., tooth-to-tooth contact), erosion (due to
    action of exogenous or regurgitated acids), abrasion by
    consumed or environmental substances, or by some
    combination of these factors. Furthermore, there is a
    need for easily-applied, age-specific standards that can
    assist clinicians to decide whether the extent of tooth
    reduction observed in a given patient at a specific age is
    physiological or whether, in the absence of any
    intervention, the process is likely to progress to become
    a problem in later life.
    The aim of this paper is to present a simple
    mathematical model of occlusal and incisal tooth
    reduction as a means for accurately predicting the
    progress of tooth wear in individuals over time.

  5. #20
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    http://bonesdontlie.wordpress.com/20...gdFBAMThUFHA==

    Estimating age at death in dental remains is based on a number of variables. Dental wear is often used in adult populations where the teeth have stopped developing. Based on comparisons within a population between the wear ratios on different teeth, the age of individuals can be estimated. This is very particular to cultures and regions based on diet and the use of teeth as tools. However, in sub-adults, you can look at the development of teeth in order to determine age. From before birth to one’s mid-20′s, teeth are developing, resorbing and emerging. Emergence and loss of the deciduous teeth are one of the primary ways of assessing age at death in dentition. For more detail, radiographs of the jaw can be made to look at the development of adult teeth below the deciduous ones, formation of the roots, cusp or crown, and the resorption of the deciduous roots before they fall out. By looking at the developmental stage of all the teeth available, the age can be determine fairly accurately.

  6. #21
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    Decomposition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Decomposition (or rotting) is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler forms of matter. The process is essential for recycling the finite matter that occupies physical space in the biome. Bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death. Although no two organisms decompose in the same way, they all undergo the same sequential stages of decomposition. The science which studies decomposition is generally referred to as taphonomy from the Greek word τάφος taphos, meaning tomb.

    One can differentiate abiotic from biotic decomposition (biodegradation). The former means "degradation of a substance by chemical or physical processes, e.g. hydrolysis.[1] The latter one means "the metabolic breakdown of materials into simpler components by living organisms",[2] typically by microorganisms.



    Pig carcass in the different stages of decomposition: Fresh > Bloat > Active decay > Advanced decay > Dry remains
    Last edited by KateB; 04-06-2015 at 12:11 AM. Reason: repair url tag.

  7. #22
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    How long does it take a dead body to decompose?

    The decomposition of a dead body depends on many factors, any of which can affect the time necessary to break it down. If a body is buried in a coffin deep in the ground, for example, it could take as long as 50 years for all of the tissue to disappear. But if it is exposed to the elements, it will decay very quickly. The most important factor in decomposition time is how much exposure the body has had to bacteria. Bacteria need oxygen to survive and are generally found in heavy concentrations in water. Therefore, exposure to air or water will speed up the process of decomposition dramatically. Animals and insects will feed on the tissue if a body is exposed, also quickening the process. Regardless of how long it takes for tissue to be completely broken down, it may take the underlying bones hundreds of years to fully decay.

  8. #23
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    http://www.memorialpages.co.uk/artic...omposition.php

    UPON DEATH
    Nature is very efficient at breaking down human corpses. When you die your heart stops pumping blood around your body, thus depriving your cells of oxygen, which rapidly begin to die. Decomposing starts almost immediately, with the skin going through several changes in colour as the blood stops circulating leaving the body an ashen color. However different cells die at different rates. For example, brain cells die within a few minutes, whilst skin cells can survive over 24 hours after death. Soon after death rigor mortis occurs, which is caused by a complex chemical reaction (involving lactic acid and myosin), which forms a gel like substance which creates the body's stiffness. Rigor mortis lasts approximately 24 hours (depending upon ambient temperature).

    Upon death blood also starts to settle in the those parts of the body that are closest to the ground, turning the top part grayish white and waxy looking, whilst darkening the underside. This results in a deep red-brown stain. For example if a person was to die and keel over head-first then the blood would settle in their head, which would result in a bruised-like stain to the face and neck. Body extremities will naturally turn blue within 8-12 hours without intervention (eg embalming).

    STAGES OF DECAY
    Initial decay (Known as 'autolysis') - externally the corpse looks okay, but internally the organs are breaking down.
    Putrefaction - after approximately two-three days bacteria are active and the body is swollen with gases and accompanying odours.
    Black Putrefaction - Skin starts to turn black and the corpse collapses as gases escape.
    Fermentation - Very strong odours with some surface mould but the body has begun to dry out.
    Dry Decay - The cadaver has for the most part dried out and the rate of decay has slowed considerably.

  9. #24
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    Following death, the human body progresses through five basic stages of decomposition. The duration and degree of each stage is largely influenced by the environment (temperature, humidity, etc.), body mass, any wrappings or coverings of the body, and obviously scavenging or other post-mortem disturbances. Additionally, submerged or buried bodies will decompose much differently than bodies left on the ground.

  10. #25
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    The Rate of Decay in a Corpse

    The rate of decay within the human body after death is normally split into two distinct categories. These are:
    Autolysis: A process of self-digestion where the body's enzymes contained within cells begin to go into a post death meltdown. The process can be speeded up by extreme heat and likewise slowed down by extreme cold.
    Putrefaction: Bacteria that escape from the body's intestinal tract after the deceased has died are released into the body and begin the process of literally melting the body down.

    If you are of a nervous disposition you may choose not to read on.

    http://www.exploreforensics.co.uk/th...-a-corpse.html


  11. #26
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    Differential decomposition patterns of human
    remains in variable environments of the Midwest

    http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/vi...40&context=etd

  12. #27
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  13. #28
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    Doesn't look like the pic above displayed properly.


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