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  1. #1
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    Murder by Manual and Ligature Strangulation

    From: Murder by Manual and Ligature Strangulation
    Profiling Crime Scene Behaviors and Offender Characteristics

    Summary:
    This chapter is based on a number of research projects on offender profiling and homicidal crime scene behavior carried out at the Finnish National Bureau of Investigation. This specific study investigated homicidal strangulation in Finland during a 7-year period and analyzed and compared offense and offender characteristics in manual and ligature strangulation cases. The
    results diverge in many respects from the previous research findings attributed to homicidal strangulation and emphasize the need to identify possible culture-specific patterns and psychopathological offender characteristics in homicidal behavior.

    INTRODUCTION
    Homicidal strangulation accounts for approximately 10–20% of all homicidal deaths in various countries (1–4). In strangulation, the cause of death is cerebral hypoxia secondary to compression and thereby an occlusion of the vessels supplying blood to the brain (5). It has been estimated that applying pressure on the neck causes unconsciousness in approximately 5–15 seconds (6–8). Homicidal strangulation can be made manually or by using a ligature. In ligature strangulation, pressure on the neck is applied by a constricting band (e.g., belt, electric cord, rope) that is tightened by some force other than the body weight. In manual strangulation, pressure is applied by hand, forearm, or other limb. Research results regarding which one of the homicidal strangulation methods is more frequent are mixed (6,9–11).

    Research on homicidal strangulation has shown that in a high percentage
    of cases, the offender and the victim have a family relationship (1,9,12) and
    that as much as 75% of the victims are females and infants (1,9,11–13). In
    previous studies, the most frequent motives for homicidal strangulation have
    been rape (6), sexual jealousy, and personal rivalry (9,11). Predomination of female victims in homicidal strangulation has been explained by quarrels in relationships and unrehearsed violence applied by bare hands as well as by physical disadvantage and incapability of resistance of female victims 9,11,14). The latter rationale has been explicated relative to homicides by firearms. Fisher et al. (14) cite Dotzauer and Jarosch (15), who suggest that firearms are more frequently used against male victims, because they permit the offender to keep a greater distance from the victim, whose physical strength may be feared.

    It has also been suggested that females predominate as victims in
    homicidal strangulation, because they are more likely to be targets of sexual
    assaults, and strangulation may occur to overcome their resistance during the
    sexual act (1). In previous studies, strangulation has been firmly associated with sexual and sadistic murders (16–19). Strangulation has been found to be the cause of death in 67% of sexual murders (20), 63% of sexual murders of elderly females (21), 61% of sexual sadistic murders (22), and 59% of serial sexual murders (19). Furthermore, Gratzer and Bradford (23) studied three samples of sexual offenders, and their results indicated that strangulation, particularly by a ligature, is more frequent in sexual sadistic than nonsadistic murders. However, ligature strangulation accounted only for 20% of the causes of death in sexually sadistic murders; blunt force trauma and stabbing were both more frequent causes of death. In a study on sexual murder, Kocsis et al. (24) analyzed crime scene behavior and provided an empirical model with distinct behavior clusters. Their study suggested that in sexual murders, ligature strangulation is associated with deliberate and cruel crime scene behavior, suggesting a “predator” murder pattern.

    Predomination of strangulation as a cause of death in sexual and sadistic
    murders has been interpreted in various ways. Based on his clinical work with
    sexual murderers, Brittain (25) suggested that for the sadistic murderer, the
    method of killing is almost always asphyxial. It may be due to the positions
    of the murderer and his victim in a sexual attack, which, according to Brittain,
    makes strangulation an “easy and convenient” way of killing and prevents
    the victim from crying out. Furthermore, both Brittain (25) and Gratzer and
    Bradford (23) concluded that the offender is able to exert greater control and
    power over the victim by strangulation.

  2. #2
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    Quote Originally Posted by UKGuy View Post
    From: Murder by Manual and Ligature Strangulation
    Profiling Crime Scene Behaviors and Offender Characteristics
    Its possible it was a sadistic sexual murder. Its been suggested here before that the RN could've even been part of a sadistical plot.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Holdontoyourhat View Post
    Its possible it was a sadistic sexual murder. Its been suggested here before that the RN could've even been part of a sadistical plot.
    WHY didn't the "three intruders" take JB OUT OF THE HOUSE...if it was for the purpose of a sadistic sexual murder? They could have held her captive and abused her for DAYS AND DAYS. What was the purpose of the bogus RN, if their attention was to murder her all along??
    "This time we get it right."

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    Quote Originally Posted by Ames View Post
    WHY didn't the "three intruders" take JB OUT OF THE HOUSE...if it was for the purpose of a sadistic sexual murder? They could have held her captive and abused her for DAYS AND DAYS. What was the purpose of the bogus RN, if their attention was to murder her all along??
    Another poster suggested that the RN could've given false hope of JBR's return, to further add to sadistical nature of the crime.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Holdontoyourhat View Post
    Its possible it was a sadistic sexual murder. Its been suggested here before that the RN could've even been part of a sadistical plot.
    Holdon, Roy Hazelwood's work is a good place to start if you're interested in finding out about sadistic sexual predators and how they operate. The trauma (sexual and otherwise) on JonBenet's body as described in the autopsy doesn't come close to fitting that inflicted by a sexual sadist.

    Have you read John Douglas's profile of the killer? For the most part, it sounds just like he could be describing Patsy Ramsey.

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    Quote Originally Posted by BOESP View Post
    Holdon, Roy Hazelwood's work is a good place to start if you're interested in finding out about sadistic sexual predators and how they operate. The trauma (sexual and otherwise) on JonBenet's body as described in the autopsy doesn't come close to fitting that inflicted by a sexual sadist.

    Have you read John Douglas's profile of the killer? For the most part, it sounds just like he could be describing Patsy Ramsey.
    Physical injuries aren't the only manifestation of sadism. You're forgetting about psychological sadism.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Holdontoyourhat View Post
    Physical injuries aren't the only manifestation of sadism. You're forgetting about psychological sadism.
    Holdon, just how is it you presume to know what another poster remembers or forgets?

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    Quote Originally Posted by BOESP View Post
    Holdon, just how is it you presume to know what another poster remembers or forgets?
    Claiming that 'fat cats' is an exclusively American term is either forgetting or purposely excluding that the term is international. Claiming that sadism manifests itself only in physical cruelty is also either forgetting or purposely excluding psychological cruelty.

    So are we forgetting, or purposely excluding? I bet I know.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Holdontoyourhat View Post
    Claiming that 'fat cats' is an exclusively American term is either forgetting or purposely excluding that the term is international. Claiming that sadism manifests itself only in physical cruelty is also either forgetting or purposely excluding psychological cruelty.

    So are we forgetting, or purposely excluding? I bet I know.
    I believe you are posting in the wrong topic, however, I will reply by saying you are the person who first said, "Its possible it was a sadistic sexual murder." No where did I say "sadism manifests itself only in physical cruelty." This is the "Strangulation" thread, which is a physical act. Maybe you need to open a "Psychology" thread.
    Last edited by BOESP; 11-03-2007 at 07:15 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Holdontoyourhat View Post
    Claiming that 'fat cats' is an exclusively American term is either forgetting or purposely excluding that the term is international. Claiming that sadism manifests itself only in physical cruelty is also either forgetting or purposely excluding psychological cruelty.

    So are we forgetting, or purposely excluding? I bet I know.
    You said that FAT CAT was a "foreign slang"....I simply posted a link that stated it was first used in AMERICA...in the 1920's to describe people that gave money to the American political parties. I never said that someone foreign wouldn't know the term. I just posted proof that it is an ORIGINAL AMERICAN SLANG TERM.
    "This time we get it right."


  11. #11
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    Quote Originally Posted by Ames View Post
    You said that FAT CAT was a "foreign slang"....I simply posted a link that stated it was first used in AMERICA...in the 1920's to describe people that gave money to the American political parties. I never said that someone foreign wouldn't know the term. I just posted proof that it is an ORIGINAL AMERICAN SLANG TERM.
    Who cares?

    What matters is who used the term in 1996, not 1920! In 1996, the term was used in Europe, Asia, and America. It was used in politically charged conversations dealing with status and wealth, of which the RN was one.

    You're dealing with a Kaczynski. A socioeconomic basket case who has never had an original thought. Sexual murders on children has happened before, ransoms have happened before, and the Rn author couldn't even make up his own lines, had to use canned expressions from violent films.

  12. #12
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    Quote Originally Posted by Holdontoyourhat View Post
    Who cares?

    What matters is who used the term in 1996, not 1920! In 1996, the term was used in Europe, Asia, and America. It was used in politically charged conversations dealing with status and wealth, of which the RN was one.

    You're dealing with a Kaczynski. A socioeconomic basket case who has never had an original thought. Sexual murders on children has happened before, ransoms have happened before, and the Rn author couldn't even make up his own lines, had to use canned expressions from violent films.
    Wasn't he American?

  13. #13
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    Quote Originally Posted by Holdontoyourhat View Post
    Who cares?

    What matters is who used the term in 1996, not 1920! In 1996, the term was used in Europe, Asia, and America. It was used in politically charged conversations dealing with status and wealth, of which the RN was one.

    You're dealing with a Kaczynski. A socioeconomic basket case who has never had an original thought. Sexual murders on children has happened before, ransoms have happened before, and the Rn author couldn't even make up his own lines, had to use canned expressions from violent films.
    WE care...it just goes to show that by you saying that it was "FOREIGN SLANG" that you don't do your research before you post your cr@p on here. Of course, we all knew that all along....
    "This time we get it right."

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    Quote Originally Posted by Squishified View Post
    Wasn't he American?

    Yes! Holdon is scattered...I don't think that he/she even pays attention to what he/she writes.
    "This time we get it right."

  15. #15
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    Quote Originally Posted by Squishified View Post
    Wasn't he American?
    Yes he was. So what? Are you saying that Kaczynski type people only happen in America? There goes another massive assumption.

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