http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/30/world/asia/china-end-one-child-policy.html Driven by fears that an aging population could jeopardize Chinas economic ascent, the Communist Party leadership ended its decades-old one child policy on Thursday, announcing that all married couples would be allowed to have two children. snip Demographers and economists say the cost and difficulty of child-rearing are likely to deter many eligible couples from having two children despite the relaxed rules, Mu Guangzong, a professor of demography at Peking University, said in a telephone interview. I dont think a lot of parents would act on it, because the economic pressure of raising children is very high in China, he said. The birthrate in China is low and its population is aging quickly, so from the policy point of view, its a good thing, as it will help combat a shortage of labor force in the future. But many parents simply dont have the economic conditions to raise more children.